Adaptation to climate is adjustment in individual, group and institutional behavior in order to reduce society’s vulnerabilities to climate (Pielke 1998). Adaptation being the process in which people strives to maintain their wellbeing, they can also take advantage of the opportunities that provided by their climatic environments. Adaptation measures can be passive, reactive or anticipatory, as a means for ameliorating the adverse consequences associated with climate change. Adaptation hence involves adjustments to decrease the vulnerability of communities, regions, and nations to climate variability and change risks associated with extreme events such as droughts and floods.
For vulnerable groups and sectors, adaptation strategies are imperative, as failure to adapt could lead to significant deprivation, social disruption and population displacement, morbidity and mortalities as well (Downing et al.1997). In developing countries for example, the problem is the way adaptation options are identified in light of the most vulnerable groups. Strategies such as large-scale agriculture, irrigation and hydroelectric development, may benefit large groups, or national interests, but may harm local, poor, indigenous populations. This is due to the fact that adaptation does not yield the same benefits everywhere and win-win situations are unlikely in climate change, and there will also be winners and losers. Planned anticipatory adaptation has the potential to reduce vulnerability and realize opportunities associated with climate change, regardless of autonomous adaptation. Implementation of adaptation policies, programs, and measures usually possesses immediate and future benefits in respect of consistence and available integrations with decisions or programs that address non climatic stresses