While different stakeholders are striving to ensure sustainable climate resilience pathways are operationalized, the situation is different in the sustainability of forests due to higher demand of energy and livelihood earning. The rate of converting wood into charcoal has been observed to be among the fast growing activity with insignificant controlling efforts and mechanisms from authorities and local communities.

Different interventions have been trying to overcome this challenge by promoting more sustainable ways of energy production on charcoal sector e.g. efficient kilns for charcoal production, and capacitating communities to diversify livelihood activities in order to reduce pressure on forests but the adoption rate has been limited. The reasons for this are mainly found in the low awareness among stakeholders in the local communities, fragmented policies among sectors, low productivity in other livelihood activities particularly agriculture, and more importantly, the informal and often illegal nature of charcoal production