Agriculture is a dominant sector of the Tanzanian economy, generating 25% of GDP, 24% of exports, and is the mainstay of 75 – 80% of livelihoods in the country including the majority of the poor. As far as the impacts of climate change are continuing persistent and in the future, the situation for stakeholders on the agriculture sector particularly small holder farmers are likely to worsen due to low level of awareness and adaptive capacities, high exposure of their livelihood activities to the impacts of climate change, hence jeopardized efforts to achieve sustainable development.

It was on these bases that a number of efforts have been put in place to make sure that communities are sustaining their well being, at the same time adapting to and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

From 16th-25th February 2017 Climate Action Network Tanzania (CAN Tanzania) conducted a study visit in Chalinze and Rufiji districts to find out how practical are the small holder farmers and pastoralists are implementing the Low Carbon Development (LCD)  initiatives in their day to day  activities. Among other things, it was revealed that a number of LCD activities have been implemented and opportunities still exists to enable farmers grow crops while adapting and mitigating the impacts of climate change. Some of the opportunities observed in Rufiji district includes availability of water sources that can support irrigation farming (Rufiji River), readiness of the communities to conduct climate compatible agriculture, road networks to access markets, fertile soil, and reliable market especially for rice. Some challenges includes poor extension services, erratic rains as well as poor and unreliable weather information. They also face a problem of poor storage facilities. Efforts of tree nurseries and distribution of trees to community members and government institutions are also taking place at Kibiti and Utete in Rufiji district

However, some unstainable activities such as deforestation, charcoal making and traditional farming activities have been persisting, the reason being poor productivity in the agriculture sector and inability to diversify livelihood activities to among the local community members especially in Chalinze district. In one of the villages in Chalinze, horticultural activities have been practiced though some challenges such as poor storage facilities, poor markets and unreliable weather information are still existing